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09/01/2006 | Argentina- Jornalist Pepe Eliaschev a prominent critic of President Kirchner was taken off the air

De Nuestra Redacción

Government critics face mounting pressure.

 

EVENT: The radio programme of journalist Pepe Eliaschev, a prominent critic of President Nestor Kirchner, was taken off the air on December 30.

SIGNIFICANCE: The unexpected move follows a recent increase in government attacks on the opposition and members of the media. This intolerance of criticism, strengthened by the government's victory in the October legislative elections, can be expected to increase as the 2007 presidential elections draw nearer.

ANALYSIS: Since taking office in May 2003, President Nestor Kirchner has given no press conferences, purportedly preferring to 'communicate directly' with the public. Government relations with much of the media have been strained -- though criticism has been muted by the government's 'carrot and stick' use of its substantial advertising budget and vigorous attitude towards perceived media hostility (such as the exclusion from briefings of journalists from media regarded as critical) (see ARGENTINA: Manipulation may limit media freedom - July 2, 2004). This aggressive approach has been strengthened by the government's victory in the October 23 legislative elections (see ARGENTINA: Kirchner win sows seeds of new opposition - October 25, 2005), and directed in particular at the conservative national newspaper La Nacion. Kirchner has frequently attacked La Nacion for its ideology and, in particular, its complaisant attitude towards the 1976-83 dictatorship (an attitude shared by most of the media which continued to function during that period).

Eliaschev exile. On December 30, the long-running radio programme of journalist and political analyst, Pepe Eliaschev, was taken off the air abruptly:

Eliaschev, a member of the leftist opposition during the dictatorship, cannot be defined as an ideological opponent of Kirchner. However, he has been a prominent critic -- both on the radio and in print media -- of the government's 'hegemonic' attitudes towards the media and the opposition, which he claims are undermining the development of democratic institutions.

According to Eliaschev, state-owned Radio Nacional cancelled his programme without the statutory seven-day warning in order to prevent him broadcasting on the subject, and did so under orders from the government. Director Mona Moncalvillo denies Eliaschev's claim that she admitted as much to him privately. However, Eliaschev reportedly has come under pressure in the past to moderate his criticism of the government.

Eliaschev's removal has been labelled as censorship by a broad spectrum of political opinion. The Association of Argentine Journalistic Entities (ADEPA) described the move as "a new attack on independent journalism", while the Independent Journalists Forum (Fopea) warned of "increasing pressure from the political power on journalists and the media". Although efforts to curb the media have been relatively commonplace in Argentina -- former President Carlos Menem (unsuccessfully) presented several bills limiting press freedom, and resorted to lawsuits against individual journalists when these failed -- there is a widespread view that intolerance of any expression of dissent is increasing under the Kirchner government.

Council of Magistrates. One of the issues currently inflaming government-media (and government-opposition) tensions relates to administration proposals to reform the Council of Magistrates, created in 1998. Although the Council has been widely criticised and its performance to date in improving the profile and performance of the judiciary has been negligible, Kirchner's proposed reforms have generated strong resistance. In particular, the plan to reduce the number of Council members from 20 to 13, and to eliminate the representatives of the third-largest party in Congress, has generated allegations that Kirchner's aim is to increase the government's own influence over the Council -- and thus over judicial appointments.

The government's proposed reform was approved by the Senate and Lower House's commissions on justice and constitutional affairs at the end of December, despite strong objections from a range of opposition parties and non-governmental organisations (some of them hitherto regarded as favourable to the government). Although the government at present lacks the 129 votes needed to adopt the bill in the Lower House, it is likely to come before extraordinary legislative sessions in February. The reform has given rise to new broadsides against the opposition:

Kirchner accused the opposition of seeking to create impediments preventing him from governing -- despite his numerical advantage in Congress, and the extension of emergency decree powers granted last month -- and defined them as unrepresentative and illegitimate -- by reason, in part, of their ideological differences and, in some cases, links with previous elected governments.

The government also used the opportunity to bring pressure to bear on former Foreign Minister Rafael Bielsa, now a legislator, who did not sign the commission resolution approving the reform. Interior Minister Anibal Fernandez stated that, should Bielsa fail to vote in favour, this would constitute not only a "mistake", but a "conspiracy".

The difficulty in gaining approval of the reform also generated conflicts within the government itself, after it was reported that Socialist Senator Ruben Giustiniani (a critic of the reform) had been removed from the Senate's justice commission in order to be replaced by Kirchner's wife, Senator Cristina Fernandez. The resolution replacing Giustiniani was signed by Vice-President Daniel Scioli, who was subsequently publicly accused by both Cristina Fernandez and Cabinet Chief Alberto Fernandez of having made the information public in order to prejudice her own standing.

Re-election rumours. In practice, Kirchner's aggressive tactics appear to respond at least in part to recent speculation as to whether he will seek re-election in 2007:

An opinion poll commissioned by Kirchner and published in late December indicated that 52.5% favour Kirchner's re-election, with only 25.1% opposed.

The survey also indicates that Kirchner has a positive image among 75.7% of the population, in comparison with 56.9% for his wife.

Although candidacies are unlikely to be finalised before late 2006, the commissioning and publication of the poll represent the first clear indication that Kirchner will seek re-election, and this consideration will underlie many political decisions in the coming year (see PROSPECTS 2006: Watershed year for Argentina - December 7, 2005). In particular, there is strong speculation as to whether Kirchner or his wife will be the candidate; the opening of the vice-presidential slot in the event of Scioli's departure could provide a partial resolution. Moreover, there are rumours that the elections could be brought forward from October 2007 to March, based on the calculation that strong economic performance may falter in the second half of next year. This would require modifications to the electoral law that would at the very least demand a quiescent -- or demoralised -- opposition.

Outlook. The interpretation that Kirchner's increasingly dominant position represents a leftward shift appears unfounded; indeed, payment of the debt to the IMF and the high primary surplus signal more orthodox than radical policy leanings. The concentration of power in a single leader has been the rule rather than the exception, and one reinforced by Kirchner's own predilections. Nor does Kirchner's position on the left of the Peronist party imply a long-term shift in the party's position (any more than Menem's neo-liberal stance in the 1990s). However, the perception that decision-making rests with a single person -- not subject to criticism -- increases concerns over the 'rules' of the political and economic 'game', not least given Kirchner's confrontational attitude towards investors and his penchant for state intervention (see ARGENTINA: Lavagna ouster sends negative signal - November 29, 2005). Moreover, this will make Kirchner the sole focus of blame in the event that economic performance falters.

CONCLUSION: With the opposition parties weakened and fragmented, an independent media is crucial to bolster democratic institutions. However, the weakness of those institutions in the face of a strongly presidential system will encourage Kirchner's autocratic instincts as the elections draw nearer, reinforcing the lack of informed and independent criticism -- as well as investor doubts.

Source: Oxford Analytica

Offnews.info (Argentina)

 


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18/11/2005|
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31/10/2005|
31/10/2005|
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25/10/2005|
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30/03/2005|
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03/03/2005|
28/02/2005|
28/02/2005|
27/02/2005|
27/02/2005|
27/02/2005|
27/02/2005|
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01/02/2005|
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31/01/2005|
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30/01/2005|
30/01/2005|
30/01/2005|
30/01/2005|
30/01/2005|
30/01/2005|
30/01/2005|
30/01/2005|
29/01/2005|
29/01/2005|
27/01/2005|
27/01/2005|
27/01/2005|
27/01/2005|
26/01/2005|
26/01/2005|
15/01/2005|
15/01/2005|
15/01/2005|
15/01/2005|
12/01/2005|
12/01/2005|
09/01/2005|
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09/01/2005|
09/01/2005|
07/01/2005|
07/01/2005|
05/01/2005|
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04/01/2005|
04/01/2005|
27/12/2004|
27/12/2004|
27/12/2004|
27/12/2004|
27/12/2004|
25/12/2004|
25/12/2004|
19/12/2004|
19/12/2004|
19/12/2004|
19/12/2004|
19/12/2004|
18/12/2004|
18/12/2004|
13/12/2004|
13/12/2004|
12/12/2004|
12/12/2004|
08/12/2004|
08/12/2004|
06/12/2004|
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02/12/2004|
02/12/2004|
29/11/2004|
28/11/2004|
28/11/2004|
28/11/2004|
28/11/2004|
28/11/2004|
19/11/2004|
19/11/2004|
18/11/2004|
18/11/2004|
12/10/2004|
10/10/2004|
10/10/2004|
03/10/2004|
24/08/2004|
24/08/2004|
14/08/2004|
14/08/2004|
26/04/2004|
26/04/2004|
11/04/2004|
11/04/2004|
04/02/2004|
04/02/2004|
10/12/2003|
10/12/2003|
05/11/2003|
05/11/2003|
10/10/2003|
06/10/2003|
01/08/2003|
01/08/2003|
28/07/2003|
28/07/2003|
28/07/2003|
28/07/2003|
23/07/2003|
09/07/2003|
24/06/2003|
24/06/2003|
18/06/2003|
18/06/2003|
03/06/2003|
01/06/2003|
17/03/2003|
17/03/2003|
22/02/2003|
22/02/2003|
23/01/2003|
23/01/2003|
15/01/2003|
01/01/2003|
01/01/2003|
01/01/2003|
01/01/2003|
01/08/2002|
01/08/2002|
01/08/2002|
01/08/2002|
19/07/2002|
19/07/2002|

ver + notas
 
Center for the Study of the Presidency
Freedom House