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02/06/2005 | Sweden shuts down atomic reactor

De Nuestra Redacción

Sweden has closed its Barseback 2 nuclear reactor. two years behind schedule, and 25 years after Swedes voted to stop using atomic energy.

 

Danes celebrated the shutdown, as Barseback lies just across the Baltic Sea from their capital, Copenhagen.

Sweden took the decision to phase out nuclear power in 1980, when anti-nuclear protest was at its peak.

However, concerns about global warming have led many to reconsider the case for nuclear energy.

Although Denmark remains nuclear free, Sweden's northern neighbour Finland is building its fifth nuclear reactor, due to come online in 2009.

The Swedish state company Vattenfall, which runs Barseback, says it will invest SEK8bn ($1.09bn) to build the biggest wind farm in northern Europe.

It hopes it will produce two terawatt hours per year from 2010. Barseback produced double that, and Sweden used 148 terawatts hours last year.

A third of Barseback's 348 employees will keep their jobs for the time being, and the plant will not be knocked down until at least 2020.

Price rises

Recent polls should some 80% of Swedes say they want to keep nuclear power, which covers half of the country's electricity needs.

The majority of Swedes say they fear they will have to import energy from carbon dioxide-emitting coal and gas power plants elsewhere in Europe, as a result of energy shortages.

There have also been warnings that power costs are on course for sharp rises.

"There is a lack of electricity in the Nordic market and this will only contribute to that," Kalle Lindholm, spokesman for Sweden's power industry group Swedenergy, told Reuters news agency.

But the authorities say measures to increase energy from renewable sources to replace the capacity lost through the closure of Barseback 1 and 2 have been completed.

In the 1980 referendum, people voted on three alternative ways of phasing out nuclear power - the vote gave no option to continue nuclear energy.

As a result, Barseback 1 was closed in 1999.

Nuclear Energy in Sweden

  • Sweden has 11 nuclear power reactors providing half of its electricity.
  • A 1980 referendum canvassed three options for phasing out nuclear power, but none for continuing it.
  • Sweden's 1997 energy policy retains most of the country's nuclear plants but has resulted in premature closure on one plant.
  • Sweden's electricity consumption has been rising and it has one of the world's highest individual levels of consumption: about 18,000 kWh/head. About half of domestic production is nuclear, and up to half hydro, depending on the weather.

    The state utility is Vattenfall AB, and private utilities include Sydkraft AB and Ringhals AB.

    Nuclear industry development

    In 1947 the government established an atomic energy research organization, AB Atomenergi. Then in 1956 a Commission recommended development of nuclear power program also producing heat. Atomenergi commissioned a 50 MW test reactor at Studsvik in 1960 to further this goal. (It is now run by Studsvik AB and no longer government owned.)

    In 1964 Atomenergi and Vattenfall together commissioned the small (65 MW thermal) Agesta heavy water reactor to deliver 55 MW of heat and a little electricity to Stockholm. It operated until 1974.

    The two organisations then started to build the larger (140 MWe) Marviken heavy water reactor supplied by ASEA, but the project was aborted just before fuel loading.

    Following a proposal for a small boiling water reactor (BWR), a Sydkraft-led consortium OKG AB ordered a 460 MWe BWR unit - Oskarshamn-1 from ASEA in 1966. This was the first western light water reactor designed an built without licence from US vendors. It started up in 1972.

    In 1968 Vattenfall ordered Ringhals-1, a 750 MWe BWR from ASEA, and Ringhals-2, an 800 MWe PWR from Westinghouse, in order to compare the technologies. Two further PWRs were built at Ringhals.

    In 1969 OKG ordered Oskarshamn-2 and Sydkraft ordered Barseback-1 with option for unit 2, all from ASEA Atom. In the 1970s Vattenfall cooperated with others utilities to build the Forsmark nuclear plant.

    Six reactors entered commercial service in the 1970s and six in the 1980s. One closed in 1999. The reactors are at four sites around the southern coast.

    Sweden's nuclear power reactors:

    Reactor type Net MWe start*
    Oskarshamn 1 BWR 445 MWe 1972
    Oskarshamn 2 BWR 605 MWe 1974
    Oskarshamn 3 BWR 1160 MWe 1985
    Barseback 2 BWR 602 MWe 1977
    Ringhals 1 BWR 830 MWe 1976
    Ringhals 2 PWR 870 MWe 1975
    Ringhals 3 PWR 915 MWe 1981
    Ringhals 4 PWR 915 MWe 1983
    Forsmark 1 BWR 968 MWe 1980
    Forsmark 2 BWR 964 MWe 1981
    Forsmark 3 BWR 1185 MWe 1985
    Total   9459 MWe

    * commercial operation

    Sweden now has 11 nuclear power reactors providing about half its electricity. It has 9459 MWe of nuclear capacity, which produced 65 billion kWh in 2003, 49% of total electricity production.

    Responding to a government request to expand nuclear capacity to replace the 600 MWe lost in closure of Barseback-1, Ringhals has applied to the Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) for a 13.6% uprate on its third reactor. The 123 MWe uprate on the 915 MWe unit 3 would mean 26 MWe in 2005 on the basis of steam generator replacement already undertaken, and 97 MWe to follow as other engineering work was completed. A 15 MWe uprate on the older BWR unit 1 was also sought. In 2004 Forsmark replaced turbines in unit 3, giving a 30 MWe uprate, and it plans the same for units 1 & 2. SKI has told the government that 600 MWe is potentially available in uprates of Sweden's 11 reactors.

    In October 2004 Forsmarks Kraftgrupp announced a 410 MWe (13%) uprate of the three reactors at its Forsmark plant, costing SEK 2 billion (US$ 275 million). This will be carried out over 2008-10, in response to forecast demand exacerbated by the government's announced closure of Barseback-2 in 2005. The plant will then provide and extra 3.3 billion kWh/yr.

    Ambivalent Energy Policy

    Up to the late 1960s there was a focus on hydro electricity to power SwedenÕs industrial growth. In 1965 it was decided to supplement this with nuclear power, to avoid the uncertainties of oil prices and increase the security of supply. The policy was reinforced by the oil shocks of the early 1970s, at a time when Sweden depended on oil for about one fifth of its electricity and electricity demand was increasing 7% per year.

    In the mid 1970s the nuclear push became a political issue, and 1977 legislation was passed to ensure proper waste management. This provided the basis for Sweden's world leadership in management of spent fuel (particularly for those countries not reprocessing it).

    The Three Mile Island accident in the USA resulted in a decision to call a public referendum in Sweden, to remove the issue from the election campaign late in 1979. The 1980 referendum canvassed three options for phasing out nuclear energy. A clear majority of voters favoured running the existing plants and those under construction as long as they contributed economically, in effect to the end of their normal operating lives (assumed then to be 25 years). Parliament decided to embargo further expansion of nuclear power and aim for decommissioning the 12 plants by 2010 if new energy sources were available realistically to replace them.

    The 1986 Chernobyl disaster (first recognised at a Swedish nuclear power station) created some pressure to progress the issue of nuclear decommissioning. In 1988 the government decided to begin the phase-out in 1995, but this decision was overturned in 1991 following pressure from the trade unions.

    In 1994 the government appointed an Energy Commission consisting principally of backbench politicians, which reported at the end of 1995 that a complete phase-out of nuclear power by 2010 would be economically and environmentally impossible. However, it said that one unit might be shut down by 1998.

    This gave rise to intense political manoeuvring among the main political parties, all of them minority, with varied attitudes to industrial, nuclear and environmental issues. The Social Democrats ruled a minority government but with any one of the other parties they were able to get a majority in parliament.

    Early in 1997 an agreement was forged between the Social Democrats and two of the other parties which involved a decision to close one small reactor by mid 1998 and its twin by mid 2001, the second provided that alternatives are demonstrated. This was confirmed in June 1997 by parliamentary decision.

    The reactors concerned were Barseback-1 and -2, both 600 MWe boiling water reactors constructed by ASEA-Atom and commissioned in 1975 and 1977. They are only 30 kilometres from the Danish capital, Copenhagen, and have been a source of contrived concern to the Danes on that account.

    The positive aspect of this decision to close Barseback is that the other ten reactors gain a reprieve beyond 2010, and may be able to run for about 40 years (ie closing 2012-2025). A phase-out program was to be decided before 2002, but remains uncertain.

    Production from Barseback was to be replaced by power from wood-fuelled, combined heat and power plants, some wind power and extensive conservation measures such as replacing electric heating with gas. It was accepted that increased natural gas consumption and some net electricity imports (eg from Danish and German coal-fired and nuclear power stations) would also be needed.

    Sydkraft, the utility owning Barseback, responded by challenging the legality of the government decision and made a formal complaint to the European Commission on the basis of unreasonable discrimination. It also negotiated with the Swedish government regarding full compensation in actual generating capacity, not simply money.

    The result was that unit 1 closed at the end of November 1999 under a complex agreement among the government, Sydkraft and state-owned Vattenfall to transfer an interest in the latter's Ringhals plant (one 835 MWe BWR and three slightly larger PWRs) to Sydkraft.

    The twin unit, Barseback-2, continues in operation under a new joint production company: Ringhals-Barseback, in which Sydkraft has a 25.8% share (though Barseback-2 contributes only 14.5% of the capacity). Reactor ownership is unchanged. Government compensation to the joint company totalling US$ 388 million covered extra costs due to Barseback-2 being a single unit, as well as some decommissioning costs.

    Total compensation to Vattenfall itself from the Swedish taxpayers is almost US$ 700 million. Removal of 4 TWh/yr from the county's nuclear output is replaced by imports from Germany and Denmark, resulting in up to 4 Mt/yr extra CO2 where this is coal-fired.

    The other contentious outcome of the late 1990s was the imposition of a capacity tax on nuclear power, at 2.7 ore/kWh (US 0.35 cents) potentially produced, which penalises nuclear relative to other sources.

    Then in October 2004, after two years of discussion with utilities on the future of the county's 11 nuclear power plants, the Swedish government broke off negotiations and declared that Barseback-2 would close in 2005 after 28 years operation, regardless of previously-agreed conditions regarding indigenous replacement power. Compensation for the premature politically-inspired closure of unit 1 in 1999 cost the Swedish taxpayers some SEK 8 billion (EUR 900 million), and this is likely to be repeated. The plant's 4.5 TWh/yr output will be replaced by nuclear generation from Finland and Russia, in the latter case from old Chernobyl-type reactors which the EU is anxious to shut down elsewhere.

    Public Opinion

    Public opinion in Sweden has been much tested. The first point to note is that the 1980 referendum did not canvass any option for continuing Sweden's nuclear power program. Many wish it had, just to provide a benchmark.

    Since then however public opinion has been largely positive towards nuclear energy. For instance in 1996 a survey conducted by the Confederation of Swedish Industries found 80% in favour of nuclear power. Of those in favour, two thirds thought the nuclear plants should continue full term and thought that any premature closure was unjustifiable. The other third favoured replacing decommissioned reactors with new ones.

    After the political deal of early 1997 the favourable view strengthened. In 1998, two thirds said that nuclear power plants should be used for as long as they complied with safety standards, that the Barseback nuclear plant should not be closed if this involved increasing fossil fuel use and that the most important consideration was avoiding any increase in greenhouse gas emissions. Protecting remaining rivers from hydro construction was seen as most important by 14%, while only 13% gave top priority to phasing out nuclear energy. A 1999 poll supported this.

    A 2001 poll showed that 75% of people gave top environmental priority to restraining greenhouse gas emissions, 12% to protecting unspoiled rivers from hydro-electric development, and only 10% to phasing out nuclear power. On nuclear power matters, 19% supported premature closure of Barseback-2, 37% favoured continued operation of all the country's 11 nuclear power units, a further 28% favoured this plus their replacement in due course, and 11% wanted to further develop nuclear power in Sweden. The pro-nuclear total thus amounted to 76%, in line with earlier polls.

    In December 2003, 74% of people gave top environmental priority to restraining greenhouse gas emissions, 15% to protecting unspoiled rivers from hydro-electric development, and only 7% to phasing out nuclear power. On nuclear power matters, 14% supported a nuclear phase-out, 33% favoured continued operation of all the country's nuclear power units, a further 33% favoured this plus their replacement in due course, and 18% wanted to further develop nuclear power in Sweden. The pro-nuclear total thus had risen to 84% as the government aired the prospect of a phase out.

    In April 2004, 77% of people gave top environmental priority to restraining greenhouse gas emissions, 13% to protecting unspoiled rivers from hydro-electric development, and only 7% to phasing out nuclear power. On nuclear power matters, 17% supported a nuclear phase-out, 27% favoured continued operation of all the country's nuclear power units, 32% favoured this plus their replacement in due course, and 21% wanted to further develop nuclear power in Sweden. The pro-nuclear total thus was 80% as the government tried to negotiate a phase out.

    Environmental Constraints

    Sweden has been an enthusiastic supporter of measures to improve world environmental quality. Among many others, Sweden in 1992 committed itself to stabilise carbon dioxide emissions at 1990 levels by 2000, and this was reaffirmed in Berlin in 1995. The fact that those levels in 1990 were only 60% of 1970's was due to nuclear energy replacing most oil for electricity generation.

    Both the Energy Commission report and that of an independent economist, W.D.Nordhaus, project that a full nuclear phase-out would increase Sweden's carbon dioxide emissions by about 50% above the 1990 level. This is why European Union proposals for 1997 climate change negotiations allowed for a 5% increase in Sweden's emission levels due simply to the proposed BarsebŠck closure.

    One problem with closing any reactor is that in the short run the replacement generation or imports would be fossil fuelled. Local back-up capacity is mostly oil-fired, as indicated in the 1996 figures when hydro production was much less than normal.

    Sweden's electricity imports have normally balanced exports, with a small net flow in from Norway and out to Finland. In response to Sweden's uncertainty, Finland is planning for a fifth nuclear reactor there. It has recently increased the capacity of its two Swedish-built nuclear reactors by 23% and that of the others by 11%.

    Industry Response

    Industry and trade union leaders have had strong words about the proposed Barseback closure. This "will be fought and we will never accept that the country unnecessarily throws away 20 to 30 billion kronor [US$ 2-3 billion] while we chop wood to meet energy needs" said Volvo Chairman, the late B.Svanholm, in a widely quoted letter with a further 100 signatures. The letter was critical of a worsening business climate in Sweden and said that the plan to "decommission a clean, cheap and highly effective form of energy is the last straw."

    The cost of electricity figures strongly in industry considerations. The Energy Commission put basic nuclear costs at 12-15 ore (US 1.1-1.4 cents) per kilowatt hour, including waste management, capital improvements and decommissioning. Any replacement capacity will inevitably cost considerably more (eg gas at 30 ore/ 2.85 cents/kWh), and both trade unions and industry are extremely concerned at the likely effect of this.

    Following the closure of Barseback-1, the head of the European Nuclear Society said that "The credibility of Sweden as an industrialised country will undoubtedly suffer from this unprecedented move of sacrificing a well-managed, economical and safe industrial facility on the alter of party-political opportunism." In "disrespecting the will of its people" on this matter the Swedish government is discouraging any "common and responsible European energy policy".

    Waste Management

    Sweden has its nuclear waste management well in hand. A dedicated ship moves the wastes from power plants to repositories.

    Some low-level waste is disposed of at reactor sites, some is incinerated at Studsvik.

    A final underground repository for intermediate-level waste (SFR) has been operating near Forsmark since 1988.

    The CLAB interim repository for spent fuel (treated as high level waste) has been operating since 1985 at Oskarshamn, and its 5000 tonne capacity is being expanded to 8000 tonnes to cater for all the fuel from all the present reactors. The spent fuel is stored under water in an underground rock cavern for some 40 years. It will then be encapsulated in copper and stainless steel canisters for final emplacement packed with bentonite clay in a 500 metre deep repository in granite.

    Research at the Aspo Hard Rock Laboratory nearby is well advanced towards identifying characteristics for this final deep repository. Site selection procedures are also well advanced, and two municipalities have now voted to be candidate locations for a deep geological repository - Oskarshamn and Osthammar (at Forsmark). Both these had been selected as having potentially suitable bedrock characteristics, after feasibility studies in eight municipalities. They will now undergo more detailed site investigation, which will be followed by site characterisation at one of them.

    Nuclear generators are responsible for the costs of managing and disposing of spent fuel, and must provide for those costs as they go. They pay a fee set by the government to a state fund administered by SKI to cover waste management and decommissioning. This is based on advice from SKB and has averaged SEK 0.02 /kWh (EUR 2.2 c/kWh).

    Three reactors - Agesta, Marviken (never fuelled or operated) and Barseback-1 are being decommissioned.

    Regulation and Safety

    An Atomic Energy Act was passed in 1956, followed by a Radiation Protection Act in 1958. The Atomic Energy Act and several others were superseded by the Nuclear Activities Act in 1984.

    In the 1960s the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) was set up and today it is responsible for licensing, regulation and supervision under the Nuclear Activities Act. It has 3 divisions: reactor safety, safeguards, and research, and it reports to the Ministry of Environment.

    The Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) operates under the Radiation Protection Act 1988.

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) was set up by the nuclear utilities following the waste legislation (Stipulation Act) in 1977 to develop a comprehensive concept for disposal of spent fuel and other radioactive wastes. It is owned 36% by Vattenfall, 30% Forsmark, 22% OKG and 12% Barseback.

    The nuclear training and safety centre (KSU) is a vital ancillary organization and is responsible for liaison with WANO.

    Non-proliferation

    Sweden is a party to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) as a non-nuclear weapons state. Its safeguards agreement under the NPT came into force in 1975 and in 1995 it came under the Euratom safeguards arrangement. In 1998 it signed the Additional Protocol in relation to its safeguards agreements with both IAEA and Euratom.

    Main sources:
    BBC 2005
    WNA 2004
    IAEA 2003, Country Nuclear Power Profiles
    SKB 2001, Deep repository for spent nuclear fuel.
    G.Greenhalgh, Nuclear Engineering International, June 1996. 

    Offnews.info (Argentina)

     



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    19/07/2002|

    ver + notas
     
    Center for the Study of the Presidency
    Freedom House